• 1. Climate Change: From Puzzles to Policy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Overview of fundamentals of Earth's climate, including greenhouse effect, water and chemical cycles, outstanding features of atmospheric and ocean circulation, and feedback between different system components. Exciting and contentious scientific puzzles of climate system, including causes of ice ages, greenhouse warming, and el niño. Importance of climate science and prediction to society, with emphasis on science's role in identifying, qualifying, and solving environmental problems such as ozone hole and greenhouse warming. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 1L. Climate Change: From Puzzles to Policy -- Laboratory

    Units: 1

    Laboratory, one hour. Enforced corequisite: course 1. Investigations and demonstrations supporting material in course 1, including greenhouse effect, atmosphere and ocean circulation, past, present, and future climates, and role of science in climate change politics. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 2. Air Pollution

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Causes and effects of high concentrations of pollution in atmosphere. Topics include nature and sources of gaseous and particulate pollutants, their transport, dispersion, modification, and removal, with emphasis on atmospheric processes on scales ranging from individual sources to global effects; interaction with biosphere and oceans; stratospheric pollution. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 2L. Air Pollution Laboratory

    Units: 1

    Laboratory, one hour. Enforced corequisite: course 2. Investigations and demonstrations supporting material in course 2, including box model simulation, dose responses, air parcel motion and pollution dispersion, daily and seasonal variation of smog pollutants, and smog transport. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 3. Introduction to Atmospheric Environment

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Nature and causes of weather phenomena, including atmospheric circulation, clouds and storms, lightning and precipitation, fronts and cyclones, and tornadoes and hurricanes. Atmospheric radiation, global warming, and greenhouse effect. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 3L. Introduction to Atmospheric Environment Laboratory

    Units: 1

    Laboratory, one hour. Enforced corequisite: course 3. Investigations and demonstrations supporting material in course 3, including causes and effects of seasons, remote sensing and satellite picture interpretation, atmospheric stability, and weather systems (fronts and cyclones). P/NP or letter grading.

  • 5. Climates of Other Worlds

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introduction to atmospheres of planets and their satellites in solar system using information obtained during recent planetary exploration program. Elementary description of origin and evolution of atmospheres on planets. Climates on planets, conditions necessary for evolution of life, and its resulting effect on planetary environment. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M10. Introduction to Environmental Science

    Units: 4

    (Same as Environment M10.) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, one hour. Limited to undergraduate students. Introduction to environmental science as discipline and as way of thinking. Discussion of critical environmental issues at local and global scales. Fundamentals of physical, chemical, and biological processes important to environmental science. Laboratory exercises to augment lectures. Letter grading.

  • 19. Fiat Lux Freshman Seminars

    Units: 1

    Seminar, one hour. Discussion of and critical thinking about topics of current intellectual importance, taught by faculty members in their areas of expertise and illuminating many paths of discovery at UCLA. P/NP grading.

  • 51. Fundamentals of Climate Science

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisites: Mathematics 3B or 32A, Physics 1B or 6B, with grades of C or better. Development of fundamental understanding of climate science. Topics include global energy balance, atmospheric radiation and greenhouse effect, surface and boundary layer dynamics, atmospheric and oceanic circulation, global hydrologic cycle, modes of climate sensitivity, climate modeling, and climate change. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 88. Lower Division Seminar

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Variable topics; consult "Schedule of Classes" or department for topics to be offered in specific term. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 89. Honors Seminars

    Units: 1

    Seminar, three hours. Limited to 20 students. Designed as adjunct to lower division lecture course. Exploration of topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities and led by lecture course instructor. May be applied toward honors credit for eligible students. Honors content noted on transcript. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 89HC. Honors Contracts

    Units: 1

    Tutorial, three hours. Limited to students in College Honors Program. Designed as adjunct to lower division lecture course. Individual study with lecture course instructor to explore topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities. May be repeated for maximum of 4 units. Individual honors contract required. Honors content noted on transcript. Letter grading.

  • 99. Student Research Program

    Units: 1 to 2

    Tutorial (supervised research or other scholarly work), three hours per week per unit. Entry-level research for lower division students under guidance of faculty mentor. Students must be in good academic standing and enrolled in minimum of 12 units (excluding this course). Individual contract required; consult Undergraduate Research Center. May be repeated. P/NP grading.

  • M100. Earth and Its Environment

    Units: 4

    (Same as Environment M111.) Lecture, three hours. Overview of Earth as system of distinct, yet intimately related, physical and biological elements. Origins and characteristics of atmosphere, oceans, and land masses. Survey of history of Earth and of life on Earth, particularly in relation to evolution of physical world. Consideration of possibility of technological solutions to global environmental problems using knowledge gained during course. Letter grading.

  • 101. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Dynamics and Thermodynamics

    Units: 5

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Mathematics 3B or 31B, Physics 1B or 6B. Recommended: course 3. Introduction to atmospheric environment, with emphasis on thermodynamics, dynamics, and structure of atmosphere. Laws of thermodynamics; work, heat, and cyclic processes. Adiabatic processes, moisture, and atmospheric stability. Hydrostatic balance. Fundamental equations of motion, with applications to atmospheric flow. Circulation and vorticity. Letter grading.

  • 102. Climate Change and Climate Modeling

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisites: Mathematics 3C or 32A, Physics 1B or 6C, with grades of C or better. Global environmental issues in climate change due to human activities or natural climate variations. Quantitative introduction to new science of climate modeling to understand and predict these changes. Physical processes in climate system. Atmospheric and oceanic circulation. El niño and year-to-year climate prediction. Greenhouse effect and global warming. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 103. Physical Oceanography

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: Mathematics 3B or 31B. Introductory course for physical sciences, life sciences, or engineering majors interested in environmental issues. Observations of temperature, salinity, density, and currents. Methods. Wind-driven and geostrophic currents. California Current and Gulf Stream. Internal waves. Surface waves and tides. Air/sea interactions. Coastal upwelling. Biological/physical interactions. El niño. Role of ocean in climate and global change. Santa Monica Bay field trip. Letter grading.

  • 104. Fundamentals of Air and Water Pollution

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: Chemistry 14B or 20B. Chemistry and physics of air and water pollution, including photochemistry, acid rain, air pollution meteorology and dispersion, groundwater and surface water pollution, chemical cycling, air/water interface, global atmospheric change. Letter grading.

  • M105. Introduction to Chemical Oceanography

    Units: 4

    (Same as Ecology and Evolutionary Biology M139.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introductory course for physical sciences, life sciences, and engineering majors interested in oceanic environment. Chemical composition of oceans and nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes governing this composition in past and present. Cycles of major and minor oceanic constituents, with focus on those that are most important for life (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and oxygen). Investigation of primary production, export production, remineralization, diagenesis, air-sea gas exchange processes. Letter grading.

  • M106. Applied Climatology: Principles of Climate Impact on Natural Environment

    Units: 4

    (Same as Geography M106.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Designed for juniors/seniors. Exploration of knowledge and tools to solve complex problems in contemporary applied climatology, including current practices, influence of climate on environment, and human influence on changing climates. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C110. Advanced Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology

    Units: 6

    Laboratory, six hours. Requisite: course 101. Weather map analysis, thermodynamic diagrams, satellite interpretation, severe weather forecasting, isentropic analysis, frontogenesis, quasi-geostrophic omega equation. Concurrently scheduled with course C227. P/NP or letter grading.

  • CM114. Aquatic Geomicrobiology

    Units: 4

    (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences CM114.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Recommended requisite: course M105 or Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences C107. Fundamental geomicrobiological metabolisms and biogeochemical reactions occurring in aquatic systems, how they impact their environment, and how they interact in complex ecosystems such as methane seeps, hydrothermal vents, coral reefs, microbial mats, or deep biosphere. Metabolisms include different photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and chemoautotrophic pathways. Interpretation of geochemical profiles and understanding of how microorganisms govern mineralization and element cycling in aquatic systems. Concurrently scheduled with course CM237. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C115. Mesometeorology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 101. Observations of phenomena with length scales ranging from 20 km to 2,000 km. Topics include polar lows, airmass thunderstorms, multicell storms, supercell tornadoes, gust fronts, downbursts, microbursts, and dry line. Discussions on design of field project. Concurrently scheduled with course C228. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M120. Introduction to Fluid Dynamics

    Units: 4

    (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M140.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Corequisite: Physics 131. Fluid statics and thermodynamics. Kinematics. Conservation laws and equations of fluid motion. Circulation theorems and vorticity dynamics. Rotating frame. Irrotational flow. Letter grading.

  • 130. California's Ocean

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Recommended requisite: course 103 or M105. Circulation, biogeochemistry, biota, water quality, measurement techniques, computational modeling, conservation, and management for California's coastal ocean, including coastal measurement cruise and term project (paper and presentation). Letter grading.

  • 135. Ocean Change in the Anthropocene

    Units: 4

    Lecture, 90 minutes; laboratory, 90 minutes. Requisites: courses 103, 105. Review of main impacts of human activities on ocean, from warming and acidification to overfishing, pollution, and exploitation of marine resources. Discussion of concepts of governance and sustainability. Introduction to global ocean datasets and IPCC-class model output. Student-led presentation to review significant papers from scientific literature. Letter grading.

  • 141. Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Chemistry 14B or 20B, Mathematics 3A or 31A, Physics 1B or 6B. Physical and chemical processes that determine composition of atmosphere and its implications for climate, ecosystems, and human welfare. Origin of atmosphere. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, trace metal cycles. Climate and greenhouse effect. Atmospheric transport and turbulence. Stratospheric ozone. Oxidizing power of atmosphere. Regional air pollution: aerosols, smog, mercury, and acid rain. Letter grading.

  • C144. Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Enforced requisite: course 101 with grade of B+ or better. Atmospheric boundary layer is lowest portion of atmosphere, representing interface between Earth's surface and atmosphere, is strongly affected by turbulence, and plays important role in exchange of heat, momentum, trace gases, and aerosols between Earth's surface and free troposphere. Investigation of properties of atmospheric boundary layer and processes that determine them. Concurrently scheduled with course C222. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 145. Atmospheric Physics: Radiation, Clouds, and Aerosols

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Physics 1A, 1B, and 1C, or 6A, 6B, and 6C. Theory and application of atmospheric radiation, aerosol, and cloud processes. Topics include radiative transport, cloud and rain formation, aerosol properties, impact of aerosol and clouds on climate. Letter grading.

  • 150. Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Laboratory

    Units: 5

    Lecture, one hour; laboratory, six hours. Requisites: Mathematics 3B or 31B, Physics 1B and 1C (or 6B and 6C). Many of today's environmental problems, such as stratospheric ozone hole, current rise of greenhouse gas concentrations, and various severe weather phenomena, were first discovered and investigated using accurate observational techniques. Direct experimental observations remain crucial component in today's efforts to better understand weather, climate, and pollution of atmosphere and ocean. Introduction to experimental/observational approach in atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Students work in small groups to gain hands-on experience in setup, performance, analysis, and reporting of different experiments. Introduction to underlying principles of these experimental methods and basic data analysis tools. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 155. Introduction to Ecosystem-Atmosphere Interactions

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Exchanges of energy, moisture, atmospheric trace gases, and momentum between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. Interactions and feedbacks between physical environment and physiological status of plants and soils. Topics include canopy structure and function, leaf energy balance, and carbon and water fluxes between plants, soils, and atmosphere. Letter grading.

  • C160. Remote Sensing of Atmosphere and Oceans

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: Physics 1C or 6B. Theory and techniques of remote sensing; atmospheric spectroscopy, scattering, and polarization; passive and active techniques; relevant satellite systems; inversion methods; remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, temperature, precipitation, and trace constituents; remote sensing of oceans and biosphere. Concurrently scheduled with course C240B. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C170. Introduction to Solar System Plasmas

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Mathematics 33A, Physics 1C. Introduction to basic plasma physical processes occurring in sun, solar wind, magnetospheres, and ionospheres of planets, using simple fluid (magnetohydrodynamic) models as well as individual particle (radiation belt dynamics) approach. Solar-planetary coupling processes, geomagnetic phenomena, aurora. Concurrently scheduled with course C205A. Letter grading.

  • 180. Numerical Methods in Atmospheric Sciences

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one course in C or Fortran programming. Requisite: Mathematics 33B. Survey of numerical methods employed in atmospheric and related sciences: theory, application, and programming. Letter grading.

  • C182. Data Analysis in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, one hour. Enforced requisite: one course from 101 through M105. Recommended: one probability course. Overview of data analytic methods in common use in atmospheric and oceanic research. Linear models, principal component analysis (empirical orthogonal function), time-series analysis, and clustering methods. Model validation and evaluation, significance tests, error analysis, bias detection. Emphasis on practical applications, with specific examples from atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Concurrently scheduled with course C260. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 186. Operational Meteorology

    Units: 2

    Laboratory, six hours. Requisite: course C110. Limited to junior/senior Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Environmental Sciences majors. Daily contact with weather data and forecasting, satellite and radar data. Introduction to weather forecasting for aviation, air pollution, marine weather, fire weather, and public use. Includes daily weather map discussions and visits to observing, radiosonde, and radar installations. Letter grading.

  • 189. Advanced Honors Seminars

    Units: 1

    Seminar, three hours. Limited to 20 students. Designed as adjunct to undergraduate lecture course. Exploration of topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities and led by lecture course instructor. May be applied toward honors credit for eligible students. Honors content noted on transcript. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 189HC. Honors Contracts

    Units: 1

    Tutorial, three hours. Limited to students in College Honors Program. Designed as adjunct to upper division lecture course. Individual study with lecture course instructor to explore topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities. May be repeated for maximum of 4 units. Individual honors contract required. Honors content noted on transcript. Letter grading.

  • 190. Research Colloquia in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. Preparation: basic knowledge of meteorology (equivalent to course 3) and lower division calculus, chemistry, and physics; course 101 strongly recommended. Limited to departmental majors and minors. Survey of current research projects presented by faculty members and research staff in seminar and/or panel discussion format. May be repeated for credit. P/NP grading.

  • 197. Individual Studies in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    Units: 2 to 4

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to juniors/seniors. Individual intensive study, with scheduled meetings to be arranged between faculty member and student. Assigned reading and tangible evidence of mastery of subject matter required. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 199. Directed Research in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    Units: 2 to 4

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to juniors/seniors and required for Mathematics/Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences majors. Supervised individual research or investigation under guidance of faculty mentor. Culminating paper or project required. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 200A. Introduction to Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Recommended requisite: Physics 131. Thermodynamics of two component (moist/salty) fluids. Thermodynamic diagrams and stability. Saturation and moist processes. Hydrostatics. Equations of fluid motion in rotating coordinate systems. Scales of motion and dominant balances: geostrophic, gradient, and thermal wind. Circulation and vorticity. Boundary layers and turbulence. Elementary waves. S/U or letter grading.

  • 200B. Introduction to Dynamics of Earth System

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Overview of general circulation of atmosphere and ocean; global energy balances; coupled circulations (such as el niño); mesoscale, synoptic, and tropical phenomena; boundary layers, clouds, and convection; biogeochemical cycles; climate variability and change. S/U or letter grading.

  • 201A. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics I

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Fundamental equations of motion. Atmospheric and oceanic approximations. Rotating reference frame. Density stratification. Geostrophic adjustment and balance. Potential vorticity conservation. Vortex dynamics. Acoustic, gravity, inertial, Rossby, and Kelvin waves. Barotropic and baroclinic instability. Ekman boundary layers. Oceanic wind gyres: Sverdrup balance and western boundary currents. Letter grading.

  • 201B. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics II

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Enforced requisite: course 201A. Anelastic approximation. Small-scale gravity waves in atmosphere. Critical levels. Kelvin/Helmholtz instability. Quasi-static oscillations of planetary atmosphere. Equatorial Kelvin and mixed Rossby-gravity (Yanai) waves. Baroclinic and barotropic instabilities in continuously stratified system. General circulation of atmosphere. Jet streams, eddies, storm tracks. Propagation of planetary waves. Wave-mean flow interactions. Noninteraction theorems. Letter grading.

  • 201C. Atmospheric and Oceanic Turbulence

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 200A. Recommended: course 201A. Turbulent flows that occur on relatively small scales (<~10 km) in both atmosphere and ocean. Classical homogeneous, shear, convective, and boundary-layer turbulence and its geophysical modification due to stratification, Earth's rotation, and water phase changes. S/U or letter grading.

  • 202. Introduction to Ocean Science

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Fundamentals of ocean physics, chemistry, and biology. Equations of motion, dynamical balances, conservation laws. Ocean circulation and material transport from small-scale eddies and waves to global circulation of thermocline and deep ocean; influences on ecosystem processes, biogeographic provinces, and chemical cycles; implications for global heat transport, sea ice, and climate. S/U or letter grading.

  • M203A. Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry

    Units: 4

    (Same as Civil Engineering M262A.) Lecture, three hours. Requisite for undergraduates: Chemistry 20B. Principles of chemical kinetics, thermochemistry, spectroscopy, and photochemistry; chemical composition and history of Earth's atmosphere; biogeochemical cycles of key atmospheric constituents; basic photochemistry of troposphere and stratosphere, upper atmosphere chemical processes; air pollution; chemistry and climate. S/U or letter grading.

  • 203B. Introduction to Atmospheric Physics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Principles of radiative transfer; absorption, emission, and scattering of solar and infrared radiation; radiation budget consideration; aerosols in atmosphere; principles of water droplet and ice crystal formation; diffusion and accretion; precipitation processes; radiative forcings of clouds/aerosols and climate feedback. S/U or letter grading.

  • C205A. Introduction to Solar System Plasmas

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introduction to basic plasma physical processes occurring in sun, solar wind, magnetospheres, and ionospheres of planets, using simple fluid (magnetohydrodynamic) models as well as individual particle (radiation belt dynamics) approach. Solar-planetary coupling processes, geomagnetic phenomena, aurora. Concurrently scheduled with course C170. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 205B. Introduction to Solar-Terrestrial Physics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Solar, interplanetary, magnetospheric, ionospheric, auroral, geomagnetic phenomenological and theoretical background for studies in space physics. Contextual understanding and literacy in space physics terminology provided. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 205C. Planetary Upper Atmospheres

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Aeronomy of upper atmospheres of Earth and other planets and some of their satellites -- thermospheric structure and morphology, circulations, and disturbances; ionospheres as collisional and magnetized (unmagnetized) plasmas: currents, drifts, and instabilities. Examples of upper atmospheric interaction with lower atmosphere and magnetosphere. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • M206. Introduction to Biophysical Modeling of Land Surface Processes and Land/Atmosphere Interactions

    Units: 4

    (Same as Geography M206.) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, one hour; reading period, one hour. Designed for graduate students. Presentation of introductory knowledge for graduate students to understand nature, principles, and scope of biophysical modeling of land surface processes, including ideal canopy model, radiation, heat and CO2 fluxes transfer, and satellite data application. Laboratory sessions included. S/U or letter grading.

  • 209. Climate Change Assessment

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Corequisites: graduate atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, or climate science courses. Lectures, readings, and projects on current issues in projections of future anthropogenic climate change; design and use of resources from Coupled Model Intercomparison Projects (CMIPs), topics from large multiscientist climate assessments, including Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Issues in modeling current climate, including natural climate variability, paleoclimate, and global change under standardized scenarios for future anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols. May be repeated for credit. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • M210. Planetary Atmospheres and Climates

    Units: 4

    (Formerly numbered 210.) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M229.) Lecture, three hours. Enforced requisite: Physics 1C. Planetary atmospheric structure and composition, radiative transfer, and climate dynamics. Topics include origin and evolution of atmospheres, paleoclimate of Earth and Mars, atmospheric thermodynamics, plane-parallel radiative transfer, climate dynamics, climate forcings/feedbacks, bifurcation, and climate hysteresis. S/U or letter grading.

  • 211. Planetary Wave Dynamics and Teleconnections in Atmosphere/Ocean

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 201B. Dynamics of stationary and low-frequency waves in Earth's atmosphere and ocean with applications to remote impacts of climate variability. Propagation of barotropic and baroclinic Rossby waves in spatially varying flow. Interactions with storm tracks and mean flow. Teleconnection patterns. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 212A. Numerical Methods in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite or corequisite: course 201A. Basic numerical methods for initial-boundary value problems in fluid dynamics, with emphasis on applications to atmospheric and oceanographic problems. Finite-difference methods and truncation error. Linear and nonlinear computational instability. Computational modes and computational boundary conditions. Nonlinear shallow-water equation model. Spectral methods. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 212B. Numerical Modeling of Atmosphere I

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisites: courses 201B, 212A. Dynamics of numerical weather prediction and climate models and their computational design. Basic governing equations. Vertical and horizontal coordinates. Quasi-geostrophic and balanced models. Shallow-water equation model. Three-dimensional primitive equation models. Limited-area modeling. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 212C. Numerical Modeling of Atmosphere II

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 201C. Formulation of physical processes in numerical weather prediction and climate models. Planetary boundary layer processes. Turbulence closure models. Condensation processes. Parameterization of moist-convective processes. Cloudiness parameterization. Parameterization of gravity wave drag. S/U grading.

  • 214. Theoretical Climatic Dynamics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Radiative transfer and energy-balance models (EBMs). Multiple equilibrium climates and their stability. Coupled EBMs of atmosphere and oceans. Climatic history of our planet. Continuum mechanics of ice sheets and mantle. Oscillatory models of Quaternary glaciation cycles. Transitions from equilibrium to periodic and aperiodic climate behavior. Climatic predictability. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 215. Ocean Circulation

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisites: courses 200A, 201A. Phenomena, theory, and modeling of ocean circulations with global to regional scope. Circulation types include thermohaline and wind-driven currents. Examination of relationships between ocean circulations and smaller-scale motions, atmospheric climate, and biogeochemical transport. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 216A. Tropical Motions with Moist Processes

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 201C. Cumulus convection and the boundary layer in tropics. Cloud clusters and mesoscale convection systems. Interaction of cumulus convection with large-scale environment. Tropical cyclones. Monsoon meteorology. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 216B. Wave Motions in Tropical Atmosphere

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 201B. Basic theory of equatorially trapped waves. Observations of tropical wave disturbances. Generation mechanisms of tropical waves. Tropical 30-50 day oscillation. Quasi-biennial and semiannual oscillations. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 217. Mesoclimates

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Global distribution of climate regimes with spatial scales smaller than 100 km. Mechanisms maintaining mesoclimates against much larger-scale atmospheric general circulation and isolation gradients. Mesoclimate-ecosystem interaction. S/U or letter grading.

  • 218. Dynamics of Atmosphere/Ocean System

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Transfer of properties between atmosphere and ocean; wind-driven ocean currents; coastal upwelling. Air/sea interactions. Effects of oceans on climate. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • C222. Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Atmospheric boundary layer is lowest portion of atmosphere, representing interface between Earth's surface and atmosphere, is strongly affected by turbulence, and plays important role in exchange of heat, momentum, trace gases, and aerosols between Earth's surface and free troposphere. Investigation of properties of atmospheric boundary layer and processes that determine them. Concurrently scheduled with course C144. S/U or letter grading.

  • 224A. Atmospheric Turbulence

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Kinematics of homogeneous and shear flow turbulence. Surface and planetary boundary layers, including heat transfer and turbulent convection. Survey of field and laboratory observations and their interpretation by theory. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • M224B. Atmospheric Diffusion and Air Pollution

    Units: 4

    (Same as Civil Engineering M262B.) Lecture, three hours. Nature and sources of atmospheric pollution; diffusion from point, line, and area sources; pollution dispersion in urban complexes; meteorological factors and air pollution potential; meteorological aspects of air pollution. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • C227. Advanced Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology

    Units: 6

    Laboratory, six hours. Requisite: course 101. Weather map analysis, thermodynamic diagrams, satellite interpretation, severe weather forecasting, isentropic analysis, frontogenesis, quasi-geostrophic omega equation. Concurrently scheduled with course C110. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • C228. Mesometeorology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 101. Observations of phenomena with length scales ranging from 20 km to 2,000 km. Topics include polar lows, airmass thunderstorms, multicell storms, supercell tornadoes, gust fronts, downbursts, microbursts, and dry line. Discussions on design of field project. Concurrently scheduled with course C115. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 229. Mesoscale Modeling

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisites: courses 201C, C228. Numerical and analytical modeling of convective and mesoscale motions, from shallow heat sources to large complex systems. Model frameworks, assumptions, parameterizations, and solution techniques. Role of modeling efforts in understanding dynamic structure and behavior of systems. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 230A. Atmospheric Chemistry I

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course M203A. Photochemistry of troposphere; physical chemistry of surfaces and solutions; precipitation chemistry and acid rain; atmospheric organic chemistry; regional and global biogeochemical cycles; current issues in global change. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 230B. Atmospheric Chemistry II

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course M203A. Photochemistry of stratosphere and mesosphere; basic ionospheric processes; stratospheric pollution and ozone layer; physical chemistry of upper atmosphere clouds and aerosols; comparative photochemistry of planetary atmospheres; observational techniques and results. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 232. Chemical Transport Modeling

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisites: courses M203A, 230A, 230B. Equations of tracer transport and chemical kinetics modeling in three dimensions; numerical techniques; coupled simulations of gas-phase and aerosol microphysics and chemistry; computational versus observational results; current problems in tracer modeling. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • M235. Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics and Climate

    Units: 4

    (Same as Ecology and Evolutionary Biology M238.) Lecture, three hours. Interaction of ocean biogeochemical cycles with physical climate system. Biogeochemical processes controlling carbon dioxide and oxygen in oceans and atmosphere over time-scales from few million years to several years. Anthropogenic perturbation of global carbon cycle and climate. Response of ocean ecosystems to past and future global changes. Use of isotopes to study ocean biogeochemical cycles and climate. Interactions between biogeochemical cycles on land and in ocean. S/U or letter grading.

  • 236. Terrestrial Biogeochemical Dynamics and Climate

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Corequisites: graduate atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, and climate science courses. Biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial biosphere. Carbon/water/energy/nutrient dynamics. Observational techniques and results. Interactions of terrestrial biogeochemical cycles with climate system on timescales of seconds to centuries. Use of isotopes to study land biogeochemical cycles and climate. Anthropogenic perturbations of global terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks. Response of land ecosystems to past and future global changes. S/U or letter grading.

  • CM237. Aquatic Geomicrobiology

    Units: 4

    (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences CM214.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Recommended requisite: course M105 or Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences C107. Fundamental geomicrobiological metabolisms and biogeochemical reactions occurring in aquatic systems, how they impact their environment, and how they interact in complex ecosystems such as methane seeps, hydrothermal vents, coral reefs, microbial mats, or deep biosphere. Metabolisms include different photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and chemoautotrophic pathways. Interpretation of geochemical profiles and understanding of how microorganisms govern mineralization and element cycling in aquatic systems. Concurrently scheduled with course CM114. S/U or letter grading.

  • 240A. Radar Meteorology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Radar detection of spherical and nonspherical particles; use of radar in studying size distributions of cloud and precipitation particles, precipitation intensity and amount, updraft velocities, horizontal wind speed, and turbulence; radar observations of convective clouds, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, squall lines, and fronts; clear air echoes. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • C240B. Remote Sensing of Atmosphere and Oceans

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: Physics 1C or 6B. Theory and techniques of remote sensing; atmospheric spectroscopy, scattering, and polarization; passive and active techniques; relevant satellite systems; inversion methods; remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, temperature, precipitation, and trace constituents; remote sensing of oceans and biosphere. Concurrently scheduled with course C160. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 244A. Atmospheric Radiation

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 203B. Presentation of computational methods for solar and thermal infrared radiative fluxes and heating rates in clear, aerosol, and cloudy atmospheres for climate studies. Topics include line-by-line and correlated k-distribution methods for treating gaseous absorption, simplified methods for radiative transfer in Rayleigh and Lorenz/Mie atmospheres, and global radiative equilibrium. Use of user-friendly computer code required to perform calculations of radiative fluxes and heating rates in various atmospheric conditions for climate applications. S/U or letter grading.

  • 244B. Radiation and Climate

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, one hour. Requisite: course 203B. Radiation budget of Earth/atmosphere system observed from satellites. Introduction to one-dimensional radiative-convective and energy-balance climate models. Climatic impact of increases in greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols. Climatic impact of changes in solar constant, solar insolation, and volcanic eruption. Radiative forcing in global climate models: clouds and aerosols. Role of radiation in numerical simulation of interannual variability. S/U or letter grading.

  • 250A. Solar System Magnetohydrodynamics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course C205A. Derivation of MHD equations with two fluid aspects, generalized Ohm's law, small amplitude waves, discontinuities, shock waves, and instabilities. Applications to statics and dynamics of solar wind and planetary magnetospheres and to solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 250B. Solar System Microscopic Plasma Processes

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course C205A. Adiabatic charged particle dynamics; incoherent radiation processes; collective effects in plasma; propagation characteristics of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; introduction to resonant interaction between charged particles and plasma waves. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 256. Ionospheric Electrodynamics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Ionospheric structure, currents, and electric fields; equatorial and high-latitude ionospheres; ionospheric control of magnetospheric phenomena. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 257. Radiation Belt Plasma Physics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 250B. Turbulent plasma instabilities and their relation to satellite observations and magnetospheric structure. Processes responsible for source, loss, and transport of energetic radiation belt particles. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

  • 258. Sources and Losses of Magnetospheric Plasma

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Transfer of plasma across magnetopause, sources for magnetotail, ionospheric plasma flow to magnetosphere, precipitation of magnetospheric particles, plasmasphere, and ring current. S/U or letter grading.

  • 259. Space Weather

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Identification, description, and theories for major disturbances in magnetosphere/ionosphere/thermosphere system. Storms, substorms, convection bays, and other disturbances. Connections to interplanetary conditions, particle injection and precipitation, currents and fields. S/U or letter grading.

  • C260. Data Analysis in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, one hour. Enforced requisite: one course from 101 through M105. Overview of data analytic methods in common use in atmospheric and oceanic research. Linear models, principal component analysis (empirical orthogonal function), time-series analysis, and clustering methods. Model validation and evaluation, significance tests, error analysis, bias detection. Emphasis on practical applications, with specific examples from atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Concurrently scheduled with course C182. S/U or letter grading.

  • 270. Seminar: Atmospheric Sciences

    Units: 2

    Seminar, one hour. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 271. Seminar: Atmospheric Dynamics

    Units: 2

    Seminar, one hour. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • M272A. Seminar: Climate Dynamics

    Units: 2 to 4

    (Same as Earth and Space Sciences M270A and Geography M270A.) Seminar, two hours. Archaeological, geochemical, micropaleontological, and stratigraphic evidence for climate change throughout geological past. Rheology and dynamics of climatic subsystems: atmosphere and oceans, ice sheets and marine ice, lithosphere and mantle. Climate of other planets. Modeling, simulation, and prediction of modern climate on monthly, seasonal, and interannual time scale. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • M272B. Seminar: Climate Dynamics

    Units: 2 to 4

    (Same as Earth and Space Sciences M270B and Geography M270B.) Seminar, two hours. Archaeological, geochemical, micropaleontological, and stratigraphic evidence for climate change throughout geological past. Rheology and dynamics of climatic subsystems: atmosphere and oceans, ice sheets and marine ice, lithosphere and mantle. Climate of other planets. Modeling, simulation, and prediction of modern climate on monthly, seasonal, and interannual time scale. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • M272C. Seminar: Climate Dynamics

    Units: 2 to 4

    (Same as Earth and Space Sciences M270C and Geography M270C.) Seminar, two hours. Archaeological, geochemical, micropaleontological, and stratigraphic evidence for climate change throughout geological past. Rheology and dynamics of climatic subsystems: atmosphere and oceans, ice sheets and marine ice, lithosphere and mantle. Climate of other planets. Modeling, simulation, and prediction of modern climate on monthly, seasonal, and interannual time scale. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 274. Seminar: Atmospheric Chemistry

    Units: 2

    Seminar, one hour. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • M275A. Seminar: Space Physics

    Units: 2

    (Same as Earth and Space Sciences M288A.) Seminar, one hour. Problems of current interest concerning particles and fields in space. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • M275B. Seminar: Space Physics

    Units: 2

    (Same as Earth and Space Sciences M288B.) Seminar, one hour. Problems of current interest concerning particles and fields in space. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • M275C. Seminar: Space Physics

    Units: 2

    (Same as Earth and Space Sciences M288C.) Seminar, one hour. Problems of current interest concerning particles and fields in space. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 276. Seminar: Mesoscale Processes

    Units: 2

    Seminar, one hour. Selected topics of current research interest in convection, extratropical cyclones, and fronts. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 277. Seminar: Coastal Ocean

    Units: 2

    Seminar, one hour. Selected topics of current interdisciplinary research in marine and coastal sciences, including physical oceangraphy, biogeochemistry, marine biology, coastal engineering, atmospheric processes, and health-related issues. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 281. Special Topics in Dynamic Meteorology

    Units: 2 to 4

    Lecture, two hours. Individual meetings with instructor to be arranged. Content varies from year to year. S/U or letter grading.

  • 282. Special Topics in Oceanography

    Units: 2 to 4

    Lecture, two hours. Individual meetings with instructor to be arranged. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 283. Special Topics in Atmospheric Physics

    Units: 2 to 4

    Lecture, two hours. Individual meetings with instructor to be arranged. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 284. Special Topics in Atmospheric Chemistry

    Units: 2 to 4

    Lecture, two hours. Individual meetings with instructor to be arranged. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 285. Special Topics in Solar Planetary Relations

    Units: 2 to 4

    Lecture, two hours. Individual meetings with instructor to be arranged. Selected topics of current research interest in solar wind, magnetospheric, or ionospheric physics. S/U or letter grading.

  • 296A. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Numerical Modeling of Atmosphere

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296B. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Boundary Layers, Clouds, and Climate

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading

  • 296C. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Numerical Mesoscale Modeling

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296D. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Climate Dynamics

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296E. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Numerical Modeling of Atmosphere and Ocean

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296F. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Hierarchical Modeling of Ocean/Atmosphere System

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296G. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Upper Atmosphere and Space Physics

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296H. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Recent Advances in Atmospheric Chemistry

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296I. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Upper Atmospheric Dynamics

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296J. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Experimental Mesoscale Meteorology

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296K. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Tropical Meteorology

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296L. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Oceanography, and Climate

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296M. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Radiation and Remote Sensing

    Units: 2

    Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296N. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate Modeling and Analysis

    Units: 2

    Research group meeting, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 296P. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences: Atmospheric Chemistry of Air Pollution, Aerosols, and Climate

    Units: 2

    Research group meeting, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 375. Teaching Apprentice Practicum

    Units: 1 to 4

    Seminar, to be arranged. Preparation: apprentice personnel employment as teaching assistant, associate, or fellow. Teaching apprenticeship under active guidance and supervision of regular faculty member responsible for curriculum and instruction at UCLA. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 495. Teaching Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    Units: 2

    Seminar, one hour; two-day intensive training session prior to Fall Quarter. Required of all new teaching assistants and recommended for new Ph.D. students and graduate students intending to be teaching assistants during academic year. Introduction to classroom teaching for general education and upper division departmental courses. Topics include pedagogical techniques, preparation, academic integrity, and integration of technology and electronic communications. S/U grading.

  • 596. Directed Studies for Graduate Students

    Units: 2 to 8

    Tutorial, to be arranged. S/U grading.

  • 597. Preparation for M.S. Comprehensive Examination

    Units: 2 to 8

    Tutorial, to be arranged. S/U grading.

  • 598. Research for and Preparation of M.S. Thesis

    Units: 2 to 8

    Tutorial, to be arranged. S/U grading.

  • 599. Research for Ph.D. Dissertation

    Units: 2 to 8

    Tutorial, to be arranged. S/U grading.